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developed the neutral theory of molecular evolution, which predicted a molecular clock. mutations with no effect on fitness) in a new individual be .
Let there be N individuals, and to keep this calculation simple, let the individuals be haploid (i.e. The probability that this new mutation will become fixed in the population is then 1/N, since each copy of the gene is as good as any other.
Similarly, the difference between the cytochrome c of a bacterium and yeast, wheat, moth, tuna, pigeon, and horse ranges from 64% to 69%.
Together with the work of Emile Zuckerkandl and Linus Pauling, the genetic equidistance result directly led to the formal postulation of the molecular clock hypothesis in the early 1960s.
The notion of the existence of a so-called "molecular clock" was first attributed to Emile Zuckerkandl and Linus Pauling who, in 1962, noticed that the number of amino acid differences in hemoglobin between different lineages changes roughly linearly with time, as estimated from fossil evidence.
They generalized this observation to assert that the rate of evolutionary change of any specified protein was approximately constant over time and over different lineages (based on the molecular clock hypothesis (MCH)).
If this is correct, the cytochrome c of all mammals should be equally different from the cytochrome c of all birds.The biomolecular data used for such calculations are usually nucleotide sequences for DNA or amino acid sequences for proteins.